Classification and selection of logistics packaging equipment
Packaging is not only the end of production, but also the starting point of logistics. Various packaging equipment such as wrapping, boxing, and strapping are closely related to logistics operations.
Like logistics equipment such as forklifts, racks, and shuttles, logistics packaging equipment with different functions also needs to follow certain principles when selecting and configuring logistics packaging equipment.
The packaging link can be regarded as a bridge connecting production and logistics. As the end of production, the last process of the product production process is packaging, which marks the completion of production. As the starting point of logistics, after the packaging is completed, the product has logistics capabilities. In the entire logistics process, packaging can play a role in product protection and logistics, and finally achieve sales. This shows that packaging occupies an extremely important position in the logistics system.
The various machinery and equipment used in the packaging process are collectively referred to as "packaging equipment", which mainly help people to complete the main processes such as filling, wrapping, and sealing, as well as the related front and back processes. In addition, it also includes stamping, labeling and other processes on the package.
Packaging equipment can reduce labor intensity, improve productivity and logistics efficiency. According to different standards, it can be divided into many types. If function is the standard, it can be divided into filling machinery, filling machinery, wrapping machinery, sealing machinery, and labeling. Machinery, strapping machinery, container machinery, disassembly machinery, multi-functional packaging machinery and auxiliary packaging machinery for other packaging operations. Among them, filling, filling, etc. are obviously more closely related to the production process, while wrapping, sealing, and strapping are related to the logistics process. Therefore, we might as well sort out the packaging equipment closely related to logistics.
1. Packaging equipment related to logistics
1. Sealing machinery
Sealing machine refers to a machine that seals the container after the product is filled in the packaging container. Among them, sacks, cloth bags, and woven bags are mostly sealed by stitching, and box containers are mostly sealed with nails or tape. According to the different sealing methods, the sealing machine can be divided into the following types:
Hot press sealing machine. A machine that uses heat and pressure to close packaging containers. Commonly used heating elements include heating plates, heating rings, heating rollers, etc., which are mainly used for sealing various plastic bags.
Fusion sealing machine. A machine that closes the packaging container by melting the sealing part of the packaging container by heating. Common heating methods include ultrasonic, electromagnetic induction and thermal radiation. Mainly used to seal thick packaging materials.
Suture type sealing machine. Machines that use sutures to sew packaging containers are mostly used for sealing sacks, cloth bags, and composite woven bags. The automatic suture machine is mainly composed of a machine head, a thread pick, a machine head support, a spare support, a conveyor belt, a foot switch and other components.
2. Wrapping machinery
Packaging equipment that uses thin flexible packaging materials to fully or partially wrap products is collectively called wrapping machinery. The common feature is the use of thin flexible packaging materials (such as cellophane, plastic film, mucosa and various composite films, stretch films, Shrink film, etc.) to wrap one or more solid objects, which are widely used in food, tobacco, medicine, daily chemicals, audio and video products and other fields.
There are many types of wrapping machines with different functions, mainly including folding wrapping machines, seam wrapping machines, winding wrapping machines, stretch wrapping machines, heat shrink wrapping machines, skin wrapping machines and so on. Commonly used wrapping machines include:
The folding wrapping machine uses flexible packaging materials to wrap products, and folds and closes the packaging materials protruding from the end according to a certain process. Usually it is a bag for cuboid items, the appearance is regular after packaging, and the visual effect is good.
The seam wrapping machine uses flexible packaging materials to wrap the products. The bag materials protruding from the end are heated and pressurized to seal and cut in the same way as the same surface. The seam wrapping machine usually operates continuously without interruption, and has high working efficiency. It is mainly used for single or multiple continuous packaging of various fixed-shaped items. Generally, it can automatically complete bag making, filling, sealing, cutting and finished product discharge. Other processes are the most widely used, most automated, and most complete type of packaging machinery. In addition, the seam wrapping machine is suitable for the packaging of general block and cylindrical regular items and irregular shaped items, and it hardly limits the volume and weight of the packaged items.
Covering wrapping machine, that is, two pieces of flexible packaging materials are used to cover the two opposite surfaces of the product, and the sealing is carried out by heat sealing or bonding.
Winding wrapping machine, which uses rolls of flexible packaging materials to wrap the product in multiple turns. It is generally used for wrapping and packaging single items or container unit items.
Stretch wrapping machine uses stretch film to wrap products under certain tension. It is often used for the reinforcement packaging of large items and pallet unit items, that is, wrapping the product together with the pallet.
The body-fitting wrapping machine is a wrapping machine in which the product is placed on the bottom plate, and the plastic sheet covering the product is tightly attached to the product under the action of heating and vacuuming, and is sealed with the bottom plate. The skin wrapping machine can tightly wrap the packaged product between the skin film and the bottom plate, so that the product can be moisture-proof and shock-proof, and the packaged goods have a strong sense of cubic shape. It is widely used in hardware, electronic components, and small parts. Parts, decorations, toys and food industries.
The heat shrinkable packaging machine uses heat shrinkable film to wrap and seal the product, and then heat it to shrink the film and wrap the product tightly. Shrink packaging machines can be further divided into drying tunnel type, oven type, cabinet type, gun type and so on. Heat-shrinkable wrapping machines are often used for the collective packaging of bottled items such as beer and beverages and other small items.
3. Packing machinery
Packing machinery refers to a kind of packaging machinery that packs unpackaged products or small-package products into a box (carton or plastic box) in a certain way. Drinks, alcohol and other commodities generally need to be boxed after filling In order to transport and circulate.
The cartoning machine is generally composed of a mechanical gripper mechanism, a power device and a control device, which can accurately and reliably pick up the group of products, and then put them into the box; at the same time, according to the requirements of the boxing operation, generally also have carton forming (Or open), product alignment, product measurement and other functions, some also have sealing or strapping functions. In addition, the cartoning machine can be used as a stand-alone machine or used in an automatic packaging production line to complete the final cartoning and sealing operations.
Cartoning machines can be divided into bottle cartoning machines, box cartoning machines and bag cartoning machines according to different types of cartoned products; according to different product loading methods, they can be divided into top loading and side push-in According to the degree of automation, it can be divided into automatic cartoning machine and semi-automatic cartoning machine; according to the different forms of movement of the cartoning operation, it can be divided into continuous cartoning machine and intermittent cartoning machine. Among them, the continuous packing machine refers to the continuous movement of the goods during the whole packing process, which is divided into horizontal rotation type and vertical rotation type. The horizontal rotary box packer is mainly composed of a synchronous conveyor belt, a synchronous box conveyor, a horizontal circular track and a vertical lifting grab head, etc., while the vertical rotary box packer mainly uses mechanical operation, pneumatic and electrical control to group goods into groups, Put it in the packing box accurately and reliably. As a continuous cartoning machine, the vertical rotary cartoning machine reduces the frequent start and stop of the drive motor, reduces the detection time of box position calibration, missing boxes, etc., so it has high efficiency, low noise, accurate action, safe and reliable; Vertical rotation, so the floor space is small.
4. Strapping machinery
The strapping machine is a machine that uses band-shaped or rope-shaped strapping materials to tightly tie one or more packages together, and belongs to outer packaging equipment. At present, the strapping machine produced in our country basically uses plastic tape as the strapping material, and the two ends of the plastic tape close to the surface of the package are pressure-bonded by the method of hot-melt lap, so as to achieve the purpose of tightening the package. Among them, the mechanical automatic strapping machine uses a combination of mechanical transmission and electrical control, without manual strapping, and can automatically complete the strapping of packages continuously or in a single time. It is suitable for cartons, wooden boxes, plastic boxes, letters and packages, books, etc. Bundling of packages.
The strapping machinery is widely used in the logistics process, which can reduce the volume of the shipment and strengthen the unit packaging, thereby facilitating the loading and unloading, transportation and storage of the goods. There are many types of strapping machines. According to the degree of automation, they can be divided into automatic, semi-automatic and manual strapping machines; according to the different strapping materials, they can be divided into plastic straps, steel straps, polyester straps and plastic rope strapping machines. At present, most of the strapping machines produced in our country use polypropylene plastic as the strapping material, and the two ends of the material belt are pressure-bonded by the method of hot-melt connection.
There are various types of strapping machinery, and two issues should be paid attention to when selecting:
(1) Batches of packages. In order to increase the utilization rate of the machine as much as possible and reduce the cost of use, the degree of automation of the machine should be determined first according to the number of packages and the number of bundles to be bundled. The strapping speed of the automatic strapping machine is much faster than that of the semi-automatic strapping machine. For the strapping of products produced in small batches, it is advisable to choose the semi-automatic strapping machine, which can make full use of the machine and reduce the cost of use. In the case of mass production, the automatic strapping machine should be used. When the package is produced in the form of an assembly line, in order to adapt to the production cycle, the automatic strapping machine including automatic delivery should be selected.
(2) Package size. In addition to the difference in the strapping speed, the strapping machine is also very different in structure. It is necessary to select the strapping machine according to the minimum and maximum strapping dimensions of the goods.
5. Auxiliary equipment
Logistics packaging equipment not only helps manuals to complete the main processes such as wrapping and sealing, but also involves weighing, measuring, labeling and other pre- and post-processes. Due to the wide application of information technology, related operations can basically be automated. For example, an automated labeling machine is a device that can automatically paste rolls of self-adhesive paper labels (paper or metal foil) on products or prescribed packaging. As an indispensable part of modern packaging, the automatic labeling machine makes labeling easy. It can reach thousands or even tens of thousands of times per hour, and the speed and efficiency far exceed manual operation.
Second, the selection and configuration of logistics packaging equipment
Although the logistics and packaging link occupies an important position in the production and logistics system, and there are also a large number of relevant equipment manufacturers at home and abroad, due to the different characteristics of the industry, the selected equipment is also very different, so the industry concentration is low, and small and medium equipment companies occupy The mainstream of the market has become a typical domestic situation. According to Zhou Xiangnong, director of the logistics system division of Ocamla (China) Co., Ltd., logistics system integrators generally adopt outsourcing equipment in the packaging process, and rarely develop and produce packaging equipment by themselves. When choosing a logistics packaging equipment supplier, the "principle of proximity" is an important one. On the one hand, it is because the technical strength and equipment level of domestic manufacturers are relatively close, and there are good suppliers everywhere; on the other hand, it is because of the after-sales tracking service. It is an indispensable main link, because if the equipment fails to solve the problem in time, it will have a great impact on the interests of the enterprise. Choosing the nearest supplier will be more convenient and timely in the later maintenance.
In fact, just like forklifts, racks, shuttles and other logistics equipment, the selection of logistics packaging equipment should follow certain principles. For companies preparing to purchase and update logistics packaging equipment, the following process can be followed when selecting and configuring.
1. Develop equipment planning
For application enterprises, first formulate equipment plans based on their own business development plans, industry characteristics, existing equipment structures, etc., so as to reduce blindness in purchasing equipment, and ensure the limited investment of enterprises to ensure key needs, thereby increasing investment returns. The preparation of equipment planning is based on the needs of business development, the technical status of existing equipment, the requirements of laws and regulations related to safety, environmental protection, and energy conservation, the development of new equipment at home and abroad, and scientific and technological information, which can be used to raise funds for equipment investment. Funds etc.
2. Collect relevant information
(1) Economic data
The types of goods and their characteristics, freight volume, operation capacity, and goods flow are the most important economic data, which directly affect the configuration and selection of logistics packaging equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to collect relevant information accurately through multiple channels. When collecting relevant economic data, it is not only necessary to grasp the current and recent situation, but also to understand the development or change trend of the long-term perspective. The information obtained from the investigation shall be sorted, reviewed, verified, analyzed and researched as necessary, and relevant statistical analysis tables shall be made.
(2) Technical information
The technical information includes the current status and development trend of the technical performance of logistics packaging equipment, as well as market supply information, various technical performance parameters, quality indicators, operational capabilities and efficiency of the logistics equipment, the service quality and reputation of the manufacturer, and the user’s response to its equipment And evaluation, source of goods and delivery time, ordering channels, prices, random accessories and after-sales service.
(3) Information on natural conditions
The data of natural conditions mainly includes data such as warehouse conditions of the goods yard, the bearing capacity of the foundation, the foundation of the foundation, and the working space.
3. Make a preliminary plan
For the same type of goods, the same operation line, and the same logistics operation process, different logistics packaging equipment can be selected, and then several configuration schemes with different degrees of advantages and disadvantages are proposed. Next, determine the main performance of the logistics packaging equipment in accordance with the configuration principles and operating requirements, analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each preliminary plan, and make a preliminary selection, and finally retain 2 to 3 more feasible preliminary plans with their advantages and disadvantages and estimate them Calculate their investment, calculate the productivity or operating capacity of logistics packaging equipment and the preliminary required quantity.
4. Technical and economic evaluation and plan determination
In order to compare various configuration plans, relevant departments of the enterprise conduct feasibility demonstration and technical and economic evaluation, and select the best model and manufacturer as the first plan. At the same time, the second and third plans are prepared to meet the needs of changing ordering conditions. The proposal shall be finalized after approval by the competent leadership and the department.